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Cronología de Ptolomeo XIII Theos Philopator

Cronología de Ptolomeo XIII Theos Philopator


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Ptolomeo XIV Theos Philopator II

Nuestros editores revisarán lo que ha enviado y determinarán si deben revisar el artículo.

Ptolomeo XIV Theos Philopator II, (Griego: "Ptolomeo el Dios Padre-Amoroso") (nacido C. 59 - murió en el 44 de julio a. por Julio César.

Después de la muerte de su hermano Ptolomeo XIII Theos Philopator al final de la Guerra de Alejandría entre César y las fuerzas ptolemaicas, Ptolomeo XIV fue elevado por César a la condición de corular con Cleopatra. Cuando su hermana siguió a César a Roma en el 46, Tolomeo la acompañó. Poco se registra sobre su estadía allí, pero después de la muerte de César, cuando su hermana regresó a Egipto, el joven rey murió, probablemente por orden de Cleopatra, y su hijo, Ptolomeo César, se convirtió en gobernante conjunto con la reina.

Este artículo fue revisado y actualizado más recientemente por Michael Levy, editor ejecutivo.


Guerra civil

Consiguieron obligarla a huir a Alejandría, pero pronto organizó su propio ejército y comenzó una guerra civil en Egipto. Pronto su otra hermana comenzó a reclamar el trono como Arsinoe IV (48 & # 821147 aC), complicando aún más la situación.

En este punto, el derrotado general romano Pompeyo llegó a Egipto en busca de refugio de su perseguidor rival Julio César. Inicialmente, Ptolomeo XIII y Potino fingieron haber aceptado su solicitud, pero el 29 de septiembre del 48 a. C., el mismo Potino asesinó al general, con la esperanza de ganarse el favor de César cuando llegara el general victorioso. Cuando César llegó, se le presentó la cabeza de su rival fallecido y ex aliado, pero, según los informes, en lugar de estar complacido, reaccionó con disgusto y ordenó que se localizara el cuerpo de Pompeyo y se le diera un funeral romano adecuado. Cleopatra VII tuvo más éxito en ganarse el favor de César y se convirtió en su amante. César organizó la ejecución de Potino y el regreso oficial al trono de Cleopatra VII, aunque ella nunca había abdicado oficialmente de su matrimonio con Ptolomeo XIII.

Todavía decidido a deponer a Cleopatra VII, Ptolomeo XIII se alió con Arsinoe IV. Conjuntamente, organizaron las facciones del ejército leales a ellos contra los leales a Cleopatra VII y la parte relativamente pequeña de su ejército que había acompañado a César a Egipto. La batalla entre las facciones en guerra se produjo a mediados de diciembre del 48 a. C. dentro de la propia Alejandría, que sufrió graves daños, incluido (según algunas fuentes) la quema de algunos de los edificios que componían la Biblioteca de Alejandría.

La llegada de refuerzos romanos de Pérgamo dio la victoria a César y Cleopatra VII, lo que obligó a Ptolomeo XIII y Arsinoe IV a huir de la ciudad. Según los informes, Ptolomeo XIII se ahogó el 13 de enero de 47 a. C. mientras intentaba cruzar el Nilo. Aún no se sabe si estaba intentando huir o si buscaba negociaciones. Cleopatra VII siguió siendo la gobernante indiscutible de Egipto, aunque nombró a su hermano menor Ptolomeo XIV (47 & # 821144 aC) su nuevo co-gobernante.


Contenido

Ptolomeo IV fue el segundo hijo y el hijo mayor de Ptolomeo III y su esposa Berenice II, nacido aproximadamente dos años después de la ascensión de su padre al trono de Egipto. Ptolomeo IV tenía una hermana mayor, Arsinoe III, y tres hermanos menores, Lisímaco (nombre incierto), Alejandro y Magas, todos nacidos en el 240 a. C. Toda la familia es conmemorada por grupos de estatuas establecidos en Thermos y Delphi por la Liga Etoliana. [3] [4] Bajo Ptolomeo III, el reino ptolemaico había alcanzado su apogeo, derrotando decisivamente al reino seléucida rival en la Tercera Guerra Siria (246-241 aC), financiando la oposición de Grecia continental a Macedonia Antigónida y manteniendo el control de casi la todo el litoral mediterráneo oriental. Sin embargo, el reinado también estuvo marcado por la primera revuelta nativa egipcia contra el gobierno ptolemaico, en el 245 a. C. En los últimos años del reinado de Ptolomeo III, la Guerra de Cleomenean (229-222 a. C.) estalló en Grecia y, a pesar de recibir un apoyo ptolemaico sustancial, Cleómenes III de Esparta había sido completamente derrotado por una coalición liderada por Antigonid y obligado a huir a Egipto. . [5] [6]

En algún momento entre octubre y diciembre de 222 a. C., Ptolomeo III murió y Ptolomeo IV fue coronado rey. El nuevo rey tenía unos veinte años y estaba bajo la fuerte influencia de dos prominentes aristócratas: Sosibius y Agathocles, el hermano de la amante de Ptolomeo, Agathoclea. Con la adhesión de Ptolomeo, Sosibius diseñó una purga a gran escala de la familia real para eliminar a cualquiera que pudiera oponerse a él. El tío de Ptolomeo IV, Lisímaco, probablemente fue asesinado en este momento. [7] [8] Se creía que la madre de Ptolomeo, Berenice II, apoyaba a su hermano menor Magas, quien había tenido importantes mandos militares y era popular entre el ejército, por lo que Magas fue escaldado hasta morir en el baño. [9] [4] Berenice murió poco después y se dice que fue envenenada. [10] [11] Por el contrario, la hermana de Ptolomeo, Arsinoe III, se relacionó estrechamente con el rey. A fines del 220 a. C., Ptolomeo se había casado con su hermana mayor, reviviendo la tradición del matrimonio entre hermanos que había sido iniciada por el abuelo de Ptolomeo, Ptolomeo II Filadelfo, y que seguiría siendo la norma durante el resto de la dinastía. [12]

Cuarta Guerra Siria (219-217) Editar

En 222 a. C., Antíoco III había asumido el trono seléucida e instantáneamente demostró ser un líder dinámico, decidido a restaurar el poder seléucida y revertir las pérdidas que habían sufrido los seléucidas en la Tercera Guerra Siria. En 221 a. C., un año después de su ascensión, Antíoco III invadió los territorios ptolemaicos de Coele-Siria. Fue rechazado por el gobernador ptolemaico de la región, Teodoto, y obligado a girar hacia el este como resultado de la revuelta de su sátrapa de Media, Molon. [13] [14]

En la primavera del 219 a. C., Antíoco III volvió a intentarlo, atacando y capturando la ciudad portuaria clave y el "hogar de la dinastía seléucida" Seleucia Pieria, que había estado bajo control ptolemaico desde el 246 a. C. Inmediatamente después de esto, Teodoto, que se había vuelto impopular en la corte ptolemaica, cambió al lado seléucida, trayendo a Coele Siria y una gran parte de la flota ptolemaica con él. [15] Antíoco recibió la rendición de Tiro y Ptolemais Ake, pero quedó empantanado en los asedios prolongados de Sidón y Dora. [16] [14]

En medio de esto, hubo una revuelta en Alejandría, encabezada por Cleómenes III de Esparta, que Polibio presenta como una seria amenaza para el régimen de Ptolomeo IV. Ptolomeo III había prometido restaurar a Cleómenes, que ahora vivía en Alejandría con una fuerza de 3.000 mercenarios, al trono espartano, pero su muerte había puesto fin a estos planes. Inicialmente, Ptolomeo IV y Sosibio habían complacido a Cleómenes, viéndolo como un contraataque a Magas. Pero después de la muerte de Magas, el interés de Ptolomeo se desvaneció y Sosibius había puesto al espartano bajo arresto domiciliario. En 219 a. C., mientras Ptolomeo IV estaba en Canopus, Cleómenes se liberó e intentó liderar un levantamiento armado contra Sosibius. Él y sus seguidores lanzaron un ataque contra la ciudadela principal de Alejandría, con la esperanza de liberar a los hombres encarcelados en su interior, pero este ataque no tuvo éxito y la gente de Alejandría no respondió a su llamado para levantarse. Cleómenes y sus seguidores se suicidaron. [17] [18]

Los esfuerzos de Antíoco para consolidar su control sobre Coele Siria duraron el resto del 219 a. C. Al comienzo del invierno, tuvo que negociar un alto el fuego con Ptolomeo IV. Siguieron negociaciones formales de paz en Seleucia Pieria, pero no parecen haber sido emprendidas de buena fe por ninguna de las partes. Antíoco se negó a considerar la devolución de Seleucia Pieria a los Ptolomeo, mientras que Ptolomeo exigió que Antíoco reconociera a Aqueo, el de facto gobernante de Asia Menor, que fue considerado un rebelde por la corte seléucida, como parte de la pieza. [19] [14]

Sosibius y Agathocles usaron el alto el fuego para darle forma al ejército ptolemaico, mientras que Antiochus III lo usó para prepararse para una nueva ofensiva. A principios del 218 a. C., Antíoco aniquiló a las fuerzas ptolemaicas en Berytus en tierra y en el mar, abriendo el camino para la invasión de Coele Siria. Allí capturó Filadelfia, pero no pudo ganar el valle del sur de Beqa'a, Damasco o Sidón. [20] [14]

En 217 a. C., Ptolomeo IV y Arsinoe III llevaron al ejército egipcio al Levante, donde se enfrentó al ejército de Antíoco en la batalla de Rafia el 22 de junio de 217 a. C. Esta fue una de las batallas más grandes de la época helenística con más de 150.000 soldados participando en el combate cuerpo a cuerpo. Al comienzo de la batalla, las fuerzas de los elefantes ptolemaicos fueron derrotados y Antíoco lo siguió cargando a caballo y rompiendo el ala izquierda ptolemaica. Polibio (generalmente hostil a Ptolomeo) representa la repentina aparición de Ptolomeo en las líneas del frente como el punto de inflexión decisivo en la batalla, inspirando a sus tropas a luchar y derrotar al resto del ejército seléucida que dio media vuelta y huyó mientras Antíoco seguía persiguiendo al Ptolomeo que huía. soldados en el ala izquierda. Cuando descubrió lo que había sucedido, Antíoco no tuvo más remedio que retirarse a Antioquía. [21] [14]

Después de la batalla, Ptolomeo se puso a trabajar en la reorganización de la situación en Coele Siria y envió a Sosibius a negociar con Antíoco. A fines del verano, invadió la Siria seléucida, lo que obligó a Antíoco a aceptar un tratado de paz. Ptolomeo IV retuvo los territorios que habían tenido al comienzo de la guerra, excepto, aparentemente, Seleucia Pieria, y recibió una enorme suma de oro. El 12 de octubre, Ptolomeo había regresado a Egipto, donde la victoria fue celebrada por un sínodo sacerdotal en Menfis que emitió el decreto Raphia. Los términos relativamente suaves de la paz y el hecho de que Ptolomeo no capitalizara su victoria yendo a la ofensiva han causado cierta sorpresa entre los estudiosos modernos, el decreto Raphia se refiere de manera bastante poco clara a "la traición que perpetraron los comandantes de las tropas", que puede ser relevante para La decisión de Ptolomeo de hacer las paces. [22] [14]

Asuntos exteriores en el reinado posterior (217-205 a. C.) Editar

Después de la Cuarta Guerra Siria, Antíoco III recuperó rápidamente su fuerza y ​​dirigió exitosas expediciones contra otros enemigos. Probablemente como resultado, las interacciones de Ptolomeo con otros estados se enfocaron en mantener relaciones pacíficas y prevenir la guerra.

En la Grecia continental, Ptolomeo IV intentó reconstruir la influencia ptolemaica que había sufrido un serio revés bajo Ptolomeo III como resultado de la Guerra de Cleomenean. En el 217 a. C., los diplomáticos de Ptolomeo ayudaron a negociar la Paz de Naupactus, que puso fin a la Guerra Social entre la Macedonia Antigónida y la Liga Etólica. [23] Tuvo mucho menos éxito en sus intentos de negociar la paz entre Macedonia y la República Romana en la Primera Guerra de Macedonia (215-205 aC). [24] Ptolomeo hizo grandes contribuciones financieras a varias ciudades griegas para ganarse su favor. Fue responsable de las murallas de la ciudad de Gortyn en Creta [25] Ptolomeo fue honrado por sus beneficios con monumentos y cultos en su honor en varias ciudades, incluidas Rodas y Oropus [26] [27]

En el oeste, Ptolomeo mantuvo una neutralidad amistosa con la República romana y Cartago, que lucharon entre sí en la Segunda Guerra Púnica (218-201 aC). Recibió una embajada amistosa de los romanos en 210 a. C., solicitando un regalo de grano para ayudar a alimentar al populus hambriento. Se desconoce cómo respondió Ptolomeo a esta solicitud. [28] Como sus predecesores, Ptolomeo mantuvo relaciones particularmente estrechas con el reino de Siracusa bajo el rey Hierón II, pero el ascenso de su nieto Jerónimo en el 215 a. Ptolomeos en la Segunda Guerra Púnica en el lado cartaginés. [29] La situación se resolvió con su asesinato en el 214 a. C. [30]

Revuelta egipcia y muerte (206-204 aC) Editar

En algún momento después del final de la Cuarta Guerra Siria, estallaron revueltas en el propio Egipto. Los enfrentamientos tuvieron lugar en el norte del país en el Delta y por separado en el Alto Egipto, donde los enfrentamientos llevaron a la interrupción de las obras de construcción del Templo de Horus en Edfu en 207–206 a. C. [31] Las razones de estas revueltas no están claras. El historiador helenístico Polibio argumentó que eran el resultado natural de la decisión de Ptolomeo de armar a los egipcios durante la Cuarta Guerra Siria. [32] Günther Hölbl sostiene que el hecho de que los rebeldes atacaran los templos egipcios sugiere que fue "una rebelión de las clases bajas inspirada por la injusticia social", que había sido exacerbada por los fuertes impuestos necesarios para financiar esa guerra. [33] En octubre o noviembre de 205 a. C., el líder de la revuelta del sur capturó la ciudad de Tebas y se hizo coronar Faraón, tomando el nombre de Horwennefer, traducido en fuentes griegas como Hugronaphor. A pesar de los esfuerzos de Ptolemaic para reprimir su régimen, Horwennefer conservaría su independencia durante casi veinte años, hasta que finalmente fue capturado en agosto de 186 a. C. [34] [35]

La revuelta significó que las fuerzas ptolemaicas no pudieron defender el sur de Egipto de las incursiones nubias. Probablemente en 207–06 a. C., el rey Arqamani de Meroe tomó el control del Dodecaschoenus. Arqameni o su sucesor Adikhalamani completaron varios de los proyectos de construcción de templos que se habían emprendido en esta región. En muchos casos, la obra de Ptolomeo IV se apropió simplemente borrando su nombre de las inscripciones y reemplazándolo por el de Arqameni. [36]

En medio de este conflicto, en julio o agosto de 204 a. C., Ptolomeo IV murió en circunstancias poco claras. Una fuente tardía, Juan de Antioquía menciona un incendio en el palacio. Arsinoe III también murió en este momento. Según Justino, Ptolomeo IV la había divorciado y asesinado bajo la influencia de su amante Agathoclea, poco antes de su propia muerte. Según Polibio, Sosibio la asesinó. Después de unos días durante los cuales la muerte de Ptolomeo IV se mantuvo en secreto, su hijo de seis años Ptolomeo V Epífanes, que había sido corregente desde 210 a. C., fue formalmente proclamado rey con Sosibio y Agatocles, el hermano de Agatoclea, como regentes. [37] [2] [30]

Culto dinástico ptolemaico Editar

Al igual que los primeros monarcas ptolemaicos, Ptolomeo IV fue proclamado una deidad en su ascenso al trono, ya que el Theos Philopator (Dios Padre-amoroso). Particularmente después de la Cuarta Guerra Siria, Ptolomeo IV sistematizó el culto dinástico, reforzando los vínculos entre el culto al rey reinante y los cultos de Alejandro Magno y Dioniso. [36]

En 216-215 a. C., después de las celebraciones de la victoria de la Cuarta Guerra Siria, Ptolomeo IV y su esposa como Theoi Philopatores (Dioses amantes del padre) se incorporaron formalmente al culto dinástico. Esto significó que se agregaron al título de sacerdote de Alejandro Magno en Alejandría, quien dirigió el festival de Ptolemaia y cuyo nombre y título se usó para nombrar el año en todos los documentos oficiales y privados. Esto siguió el patrón que habían establecido los predecesores de Ptolomeo, en particular Ptolomeo III, cuya incorporación al culto dinástico parece haber formado parte de las celebraciones de la victoria de la Tercera Guerra Siria. [2]

Para afirmar la unidad de este culto dinástico, Ptolomeo hizo demoler la tumba existente de Alejandro Magno y las tumbas de los reyes ptolemaicos individuales en Alejandría. Se construyó una nueva estructura piramidal dentro del distrito palaciego de Alejandría para albergar los cuerpos de Alejandro y los Ptolomeos juntos. Esta estructura parece haber sido consagrada en el festival de Ptolemaia de 215-14 a. C. [38] [36] Al mismo tiempo, Ptolomeo IV incorporó el culto de los fundadores dinásticos Ptolomeo I y Berenice I como el Theoi Soteres (Dioses salvadores) en el principal culto dinástico supervisado por el sacerdote de Alejandría. Probablemente también en 215-14 a. C., Ptolomeo IV instituyó un nuevo culto en la ciudad griega de Ptolomeo en el sur de Egipto, dedicado a Ptolomeo I y al monarca reinante. [36]

En el 211 a. C., Ptolomeo IV parece haber comenzado a propagar otro culto a su difunta madre Berenice II, siguiendo el modelo del culto anterior a la abuela de Ptolomeo, Arsinoe II. Un templo para Berenice sozousa (Berenice que salva) se estableció en Alejandría, junto a la costa, y parece haber estado asociado con la protección de los marineros, en estrecha similitud con el culto de Arsinoe II. Berenice también recibió una sacerdotisa especial, la atloforo (galardonado), que marchó en la procesión de Ptolemaia y apareció en los registros oficiales de la fecha anterior a la canéfora (cestero) de Arsinoe II. Se establecerían sacerdotisas similares para reinas posteriores en los siguientes reinados. [36]

Ptolomeo también enfatizó fuertemente el culto a Dioniso y lo vinculó estrechamente al culto dinástico. Dioniso era el dios griego del vino y estaba estrechamente asociado con el ideal real de opulencia y lujo, conocido en griego como tryphe, que Ptolomeo deseaba cultivar. Se inauguraron varias fiestas nuevas de Dioniso, en las que el propio Ptolomeo encabezó las procesiones, golpeando un tímpano. [39] Cambió el nombre de varias áreas de Alejandría en honor al dios y sus atributos. En algún momento antes del 217 a. C., Ptolomeo ordenó que todos los sacerdotes de Dioniso fueran a Alejandría para registrarse y presentar sus libros sagrados y ritos misteriosos a la inspección del gobierno. Esto demuestra un deseo de afirmar su control total de la adoración a Dionisio dentro de su reino. El mismo Ptolomeo fue referido como el Neos Dionysos (Nuevo Dionisio) y representado con atributos del dios en imágenes. [36] También se hicieron ecuaciones con otras deidades en imágenes reales: un notable conjunto de octodrachmas de oro lo representa con la corona rayada de Apolo o Helios, el tridente de Poseidón y la égida de Atenea, Zeus y Alejandro el Grande.

Muchas ciudades griegas que estaban bajo el control de Ptolomeo o alineadas con él también establecieron cultos oficiales en su honor durante su reinado. Las ciudades griegas de este período concedían regularmente este tipo de cultos a los monarcas y otros individuos poderosos, generalmente en agradecimiento por un beneficio específico. Se encuentran ejemplos notables en Jaffa y otras ciudades del Levante después de la victoria en Raphia. [36]


La línea de tiempo

  • 320 a. C.: Alejandro conquista Egipto sin esfuerzo como una campaña secundaria menor en su conquista del Imperio Persa.
  • 323 a. C.: Alejandro muere en Babilonia a su regreso de la conquista de lo que hoy es Afganistán, el valle del río Indo y las áreas de Asia central al norte de Afganistán. A su muerte, sus generales dividieron el imperio de Alejandro. Ptolomeo se queda con Egipto. Cleopatra es descendiente de Ptolomeo.
  • 168 a. C.: Roma establece un protectorado de Egipto.
  • 69 a. C.: Cleopatra nace en Egipto. Ella es la séptima en la dinastía de Ptolomeo en llevar el nombre Cleopatra, lo que significa gloria del padre. Ella es la segunda hija de Ptolomeo XII. Ella y el resto de los Ptolomeos eran de ascendencia griega macedonia casi pura, posiblemente de alguna ascendencia iraní pero no egipcia.
  • 58 a. C.: Ptolomeo XII, el padre de Cleopatra, es expulsado de Egipto.
  • 51 a. C.: Ptolomeo XII vuelve al poder gracias a un ejército romano. Muere más tarde ese año y el trono de Egipto va, según los deseos de Ptolomeo, a Ptolomeo XIII y Cleopatra. Ptolomeo XIII es el hermano de diez años de Cleopatra. Cleopatra tiene unos 18 años y gobernó durante un corto tiempo como corregente con su padre. En el esquema egipcio de las cosas, los faraones se casan con una hermana para asegurarse de que el gobierno nunca abandone a la familia real. Cleopatra y Ptolomeo se casan. No podía haber ningún afecto entre Cleopatra y su hermano. Cleopatra estaba decidida a gobernar.
  • 49 a. C.: Los guardianes de Ptolomeo XIII instigan una revuelta contra el gobierno de Cleopatra y la expulsan de Alejandría.
  • 48 a. C.: Julio César estaba involucrado en una guerra civil con otro líder romano, Pompeyo. Pompeyo había sido derrotado en una batalla y huyó a Egipto. César lo perseguía, pero Pompeyo fue asesinado a su llegada a Egipto antes de que César llegara a Egipto. César se quedó con tiempo libre.

Cleopatra se arregla para encontrarse con César en términos íntimos al enrollarse en una alfombra que se entrega a la casa de César. Cuando se desenrolló la alfombra, emerge una vivaz reina egipcia de 21 años. César tenía unos 52 años en ese momento.

Mark Antony decide, sin ninguna razón obvia, atacar el Imperio parto (persa). Pide a Cleopatra que se una a él en Tarso. Mark Antony necesitaba el apoyo financiero y militar de Cleopatra para su invasión. Había conocido a Cleopatra 13 años antes cuando ella tenía 14 años. Esa había sido una reunión intrascendente.

Su encuentro con un Tarso fue todo menos intrascendente. Cleopatra habiendo perdido la protección del hombre fuerte César necesitaba otro líder romano para protegerla. Mark Antonio estaba tan cautivado por Cleopatra que renunció a sus planes para la invasión del Imperio parto y regresó con Cleopatra a su capital, Alejandría. Por las semejanzas de Cleopatra en las monedas de su reino, ella no era una gran belleza, por lo que su atracción provenía del encanto de su personalidad y de su intelecto.

Cleopatra da a luz a los hijos de Antonio. Eran gemelos, un niño llamado Alexander Helios y una niña llamada Cleopatra Selene.

Mark Antony escapa de la derrota y se une a Cleopatra en su barco, pero está furioso con ella por haber precipitado innecesariamente la derrota en Actium. Después de varios días cede y él y Cleopatra permanecen juntos en Alejandría.

Mark Antony se ha revelado a sí mismo como un perdedor y Cleopatra necesita a alguien más que pueda protegerla. Octavio le comunica a Cleopatra que si ella mata a Marco Antonio, él podría arreglar algo con ella. Cleopatra se da cuenta de que no es lo suficientemente poderosa como para expulsar a Marco Antonio de Egipto o asesinarlo. Ella concibe una trama diabólica. Ella tiene un mensaje enviado a Mark Antony diciendo que se había suicidado. Al escuchar que su amado estaba muerto, cae sobre su espada. La herida no lo mata de inmediato y él mismo lo lleva al lugar donde se supone que está el cuerpo de Cleopatra. La encuentra viva y le dice que haga las paces con Octavio.

Después de la muerte de Mark Antony, Cleopatra se da cuenta de que Octavio nunca puede tratarla como otra cosa que un enemigo y que la llevará a ella y a sus hijos a Roma para que desfilen en una victoria triunfal. Ella envía a Cesarión con protectores de confianza a esconderse en el este de Egipto cerca del Mar Rojo. Cleopatra primero tiene la intención de suicidarse prendiendo fuego al mausoleo donde ha recogido sus tesoros. Los soldados romanos encuentran la entrada al mausoleo y frustran sus planes. Ella está cautiva. Cleopatra luego hace los arreglos para que una serpiente venenosa, un áspid, sea llevada de contrabando a ella en una canasta de higos. Luego se suicida permitiendo que el áspid la muerda en el pecho. Hizo los arreglos para que ella y Mark Antony fueran enterrados juntos. Octavio envió agentes para perseguir a Caesarion y matarlo. Así terminó la triste vida de Cleopatra, reina de Egipto a los 39 años. Ella fue la última de la dinastía Ptolomeo.


Régimen

Culto dinástico ptolemaico

El Egipto ptolemaico tenía un culto dinástico, que se centraba en el festival de Ptolemaia y el sacerdote anual de Alejandro Magno, cuyo título completo incluía los nombres de todos los monarcas ptolemaicos y aparecía en documentos oficiales como parte de la fórmula de la fecha. Probablemente en el festival de Ptolemaia en 9802, Ptolomeo V fue proclamado como el Theos Epiphanes Eucharistos (Dios Manifiesto, Beneficent) y su nombre fue agregado al título del Sacerdote de Alejandro. Cuando se casó con Cleopatra I en 9807/8, la pareja real fue deificada como la Theoi Epiphaneis (Manifest Gods) y el título completo del Sacerdote de Alejandro se modificó en consecuencia. & # 9142 & # 93

Desde la muerte de Arsinoe II, las reinas ptolemaicas fallecidas habían sido honradas con un culto dinástico separado propio, incluida una sacerdotisa separada que marchaba en procesiones religiosas en Alejandría detrás del sacerdote de Alejandro Magno y cuyos nombres también aparecían en fórmulas de datación. Esa tendencia continuó bajo Ptolomeo V con el establecimiento de un culto a su madre, Arsinoe III en 9802. A diferencia del cañáforo de Arsinoe II y el atlóforo de Berenice II, la sacerdotisa de Arsinoe no tenía un título especial y sirvió de por vida en lugar de un solo año. & # 9143 & # 93 & # 9142 & # 93

Con la pérdida de la mayoría de las posesiones ptolemaicas fuera de Egipto en la Quinta Guerra Siria, Chipre asumió un papel mucho más importante dentro del imperio ptolemaico y esto fue afirmado por el establecimiento de una estructura religiosa centralizada en la isla. El gobernador (estrategas) de Chipre fue en adelante también el sumo sacerdote de la isla (archiereus), responsable de mantener una versión del culto dinástico en la isla. & # 9142 & # 93

Ideología faraónica y religión egipcia

Como sus predecesores, Ptolomeo V asumió el papel tradicional egipcio de faraón y el apoyo concomitante de la élite sacerdotal egipcia. Como en Ptolomeo III y IV, la relación simbiótica entre el rey y la élite sacerdotal fue afirmada y articulada por los decretos de los sínodos sacerdotales. Bajo Ptolomeo V hubo tres de estos, todos los cuales se publicaron en estelas en jeroglíficos, demótico y griego se publicaron en todo Egipto. & # 9144 & # 93

El primero de estos decretos fue el decreto de Menfis, aprobado el 27 de marzo de 9805, el día después de la coronación de Ptolomeo como faraón, en el que Ptolomeo V se presenta como la "imagen de Horus, hijo de Isis y Osiris". La descripción del decreto de la victoria de Ptolomeo sobre los rebeldes de Licópolis y de su coronación se basa en gran medida en imágenes tradicionales que presentaban al faraón como un nuevo Horus, recibiendo la realeza de su padre muerto, a quien vengó golpeando a los enemigos de Egipto y restaurando el orden. En honor a sus benefacciones, los sacerdotes le otorgaron honores religiosos inspirados en los otorgados por los sínodos sacerdotales a su padre y su abuelo: acordaron erigir una estatua de Ptolomeo V en el santuario de todos los templos de Egipto y celebrar un festival anual. en el cumpleaños de Ptolomeo. & # 9144 & # 93

Estos honores fueron aumentados en el decreto Philensis II aprobado en septiembre de 9815 sobre la represión de la revuelta de Ankhmakis. Los sacerdotes se comprometieron a erigir otra estatua de Ptolomeo V con el disfraz de 'Señor de la Victoria' en el santuario de cada templo en Egipto junto a una estatua de la deidad principal del templo, y a celebrar una fiesta en honor a Ptolomeo V y Cleopatra. Yo todos los años el día de la derrota de Ankhmakis. & # 9145 & # 93 & # 9144 & # 93 Este decreto fue revisado en el decreto Philensis I, aprobado en el otoño de 9816 sobre la entronización de una Bula Apis. Este decreto restableció los honores para Arsinoe Filadelfo y Theoi Philopatores (Ptolomeo IV y Arsinoe III) en los templos del Alto Egipto, que habían sido abolidos durante la revuelta de Ankhmakis. También le otorgó a Cleopatra I todos los diversos honores que se le habían otorgado a Ptolomeo V en los decretos anteriores. & # 9144 & # 93

Los predecesores de Ptolomeo, desde la época de Alejandro Magno, habían seguido una amplia política de construcción de templos, diseñada para asegurar el apoyo de la élite sacerdotal. Ptolomeo no pudo hacer esto en la misma escala que sus predecesores. Una de las razones de esto fueron las circunstancias financieras más difíciles de Egipto durante el reinado de Ptolomeo. Otro fue la pérdida de grandes secciones del país a manos de los rebeldes; en el templo de Horus en Edfu, por ejemplo, se había planeado que se instalaría un gran conjunto de puertas en 9795, pero la rebelión significó que esto en realidad no fue suficiente. tener lugar hasta finales de la década de 9810 (y principios de la década de 9820, KG). La construcción que se llevó a cabo bajo Ptolomeo V se centró en la parte norte del país, en particular el santuario del Toro Apis y el templo de Anubis en Memphis. Hölbl interpreta este trabajo como parte de un esfuerzo por construir Memphis como el centro de la autoridad religiosa egipcia, a expensas de Tebas, que había sido un bastión de la revuelta egipcia. & # 9146 & # 93


Co-gobernante de Egipto, confusión interior

Hijo del faraón Ptolomeo XII de Egipto (80 & # x201358 AC y 55 & # x201351 AC), sucedió a su padre en la primavera del 51 AC como co-gobernante de Egipto por su matrimonio con su hermana mayor Cleopatra VII de Egipto (69 & # x201330 ANTES DE CRISTO). En octubre del 50 a. C., Ptolomeo XIII fue ascendido a gobernante mayor junto con ella, aunque el eunuco Potino actuó como regente por él.

En la primavera del 48 a. C., Ptolomeo XIII y Potino intentaron deponer a Cleopatra VII debido a su creciente estatus como reina. Su rostro apareció en monedas acuñadas, por ejemplo, mientras que el nombre de Ptolomeo XIII se omitió en los documentos oficiales. Ptolomeo tenía la intención de convertirse en gobernante principal, con Potino actuando como el poder detrás del trono.

Ptolomeo XIII y Potino lograron obligar a Cleopatra a huir a Siria, pero pronto organizó su propio ejército y comenzó una guerra civil en Egipto. Pronto su otra hermana comenzó a reclamar el trono como Arsinoe IV de Egipto (r. 48-47 a. C.), lo que complicó aún más la situación.

En este punto, el derrotado general romano Pompeyo el Grande llegó a Egipto en busca de refugio de su perseguidor rival Julio César. Inicialmente, Ptolomeo XIII fingió haber aceptado su solicitud, pero el 29 de septiembre del 48 a. C. mandó asesinar al general con la esperanza de ganarse el favor de César cuando llegara el general victorioso. Cuando César llegó, se le presentó la cabeza de su rival fallecido y ex aliado, pero, según los informes, en lugar de estar complacido, reaccionó con disgusto y ordenó que se localizara el cuerpo de Pompeyo y se le diera un funeral romano adecuado. Cleopatra VII tuvo más éxito en ganarse el favor de César y se convirtió en su amante. César organizó la ejecución de Potino y el regreso oficial al trono de Cleopatra VII, aunque ella nunca había abdicado oficialmente de su matrimonio con Ptolomeo XIII.

Todavía decidido a deponer a Cleopatra VII, Ptolomeo XIII se alió con Arsinoe IV. Conjuntamente, organizaron las facciones del ejército leales a ellos contra los leales a Cleopatra VII y la parte relativamente pequeña de su ejército que había acompañado a César a Egipto. La batalla entre las facciones beligerantes se produjo a mediados de diciembre del 48 a. C. dentro de la propia Alejandría (Sitio de Alejandría (47 a. C.)), que sufrió graves daños, incluido (según algunas fuentes) la quema de algunos de los edificios que componían la Biblioteca de Alejandría.

Tras la llegada de los refuerzos romanos, se produjo la Batalla del Nilo (47 a. C.) que resultó en la victoria de César y Cleopatra, lo que obligó a Ptolomeo XIII a huir de la ciudad. Según los informes, Ptolomeo XIII se ahogó el 13 de enero de 47 a. C. mientras intentaba cruzar el Nilo. Aún no se sabe si estaba intentando huir o si buscaba negociaciones. Cleopatra VII siguió siendo la gobernante indiscutible de Egipto, aunque nombró a su hermano menor, Ptolomeo XIV de Egipto (40 a. C.), su nuevo co-gobernante.


Ptolomeo XII Auletes

Ptolomeo reinó durante el período helenístico. Se supone que fue hijo ilegítimo de Ptolomeo IX Soter, quizás de una mujer alejandrina. Pero en cambio puede ser el hijo de Ptolomeo IX por Cleopatra IV.

Su reinado como rey fue interrumpido por una rebelión general que resultó en su exilio del 58 al 55 a. C. Así, Ptolomeo XII gobernó Egipto del 80 al 58 a. C. y del 55 a. C. hasta su muerte en el 51 a. C. Ptolomeo XII fue generalmente descrito como un hombre débil, autoindulgente, borracho y amante de la música.

Ptolomeo pudo haber tenido dos esposas. He married Cleopatra Tryphaena (referred to as Cleopatra V[5] or Cleopatra VI in the literature), who may have been either a sister or a cousin. Cleopatra Tryphaena is not mentioned after 69 BC and it is not clear who the mother of Ptolemy's three youngest children is. His children include:

  1. Possibly a daughter named Cleopatra Tryphaena. Porphyry mentions a daughter Cleopatra Tryphaena who ruled with her sister Berenice. Strabo however states that Ptolemy had three daughters of whom the eldest has been referred to Berenice III. Suggesting that the Cleopatra Tryphaena referred to by Porphyry may have been Ptolemy's wife, not his daughter. Many experts now identify Cleopatra VI with Cleopatra V of Egypt, Ptolemy's wife.
  2. Berenice IV
  3. Cleopatra VII
  4. Arsinoe IV
  5. Ptolemy XIII Theos Philopator
  6. Ptolemy XIV of Egypt

His first reign (80� BC)

In 80 BC, Ptolemy XII's predecessor Ptolemy XI was removed by the Egyptian population from the throne of Egypt after the king had killed his coregent and step mother Berenice III. When Ptolemy XI died without a male heir, the only available male descendents of the Ptolemy I lineage were the illegitimate sons of Ptolemy IX by an unknown Greek concubine. The boys were living in exile in Sinope, at the court of Mithridates VI, King of Pontus. As the eldest of the boys Ptolemy XII was proclaimed king as Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos and married his sister, Tryphaena. Ptolemy XII was coregent with his daughter Cleopatra VI Tryphaena and his wife Cleopatra V Tryphaena.

However, Ptolemy XI had left the throne to Rome in his will, therefore Ptolemy XII was not the legitimate successor. Nevertheless, Rome did not challenge Ptolemy XII's succession because the Senate was unwilling to acquire an Egyptian expansion.

Ptolemy XII's personal cult name (Neos Dionysos) earned him the ridiculing sobriquet Auletes (flute player) — as we learn from Strabo's writing (Strabo XVII, 1, 11):

Now all at kings after the third Ptolemy, being corrupted by luxurious living, have administered the affairs of government badly, but worst of all the fourth, seventh, and the last, Auletes, who, apart from his general licentiousness, practiced the accompaniment of choruses with the flute, and upon this he prided himself so much that he would not hesitate to celebrate contests in the royal palace, and at these contests would come forward to vie with the opposing contestants.

Before Ptolemy XII's reign, the geographical distance between Rome and Egypt resulted in an indifferent attitude towards each other. Nevertheless, Egyptians asked the Romans to settle dynastic conflicts During his reign, Ptolemy XII attempted to secure his own fate and the fate of his dynasty by means of a pro-Roman policy. In 63 BC, it appeared that Pompey would emerge as the leader of a Roman struggle, thus Ptolemy sought to form a patron-client relationship with the Roman by sending him riches and extending an invitation to Alexandria. Pompey accepted the riches but refused the invitation. Nevertheless, a patron relationship with a leader in Rome did not guarantee his permanence on the throne, thus Ptolemy XII soon afterwards travelled to Rome to negotiate a bribe for an official recognition of his kingship. After paying a bribe of six thousand talents to Julius Caesar and Pompey, a formal alliance was formed (a foedus) and his name was inscribed into the list of friends and allies of the people of Rome (amici et socii populi Romani).

Exile in Rome (58� BC)

In 58 BC, Ptolemy XII failed to comment on the Roman conquest of Cyprus, a territory ruled by his brother, thereby inciting the Egyptian population to start a rebellion. Egyptians were already aggravated by heavy taxes (to pay for the Roman bribes) and a substantial increase in the cost of living. Ptolemy XII fled to Rome, possibly with his daughter Cleopatra VII, in search of safety. His daughter Berenice IV became his successor. She ruled as coregent with her sister (or possibly mother) Cleopatra VI Tryphaena. A year after Ptolemy XII's exile, Cleopatra VI Tryphaena died and Berenice ruled alone over Alexandria from 57 to 56 BC.

From Rome, Ptolemy XII prosecuted his restitution but met opposition with certain members of the Senate. Ptolemy XII's old ally Pompey housed the exiled king and his daughter and argued on behalf of Ptolemy's restoration in the Senate. During this time, Roman creditors realized that they would not get the return on their loans to the Egyptian king without his restoration. Thus in 57 BC, pressure from the Roman public forced the Senate's decision to restore Ptolemy. However, Rome did not wish to invade Egypt to restore the king since the Sibylline books stated that if an Egyptian king asked for help and Rome proceeded with military intervention, great dangers and difficulties would occur.

Egyptians heard rumors of Rome's possible intervention and disliked the idea of their exiled king's return. Cassius Dio reported that a group of one hundred men were sent as envoys from Egypt to make their case to the Romans against Ptolemy XII's restoration, but Ptolemy had their leader (a philosopher named Dion) poisoned and most of the other protesters killed before they reached Rome to plead their desires.

Restoration (55� BC)

Ptolemy XII finally recovered his throne by paying Aulus Gabinius 10,000 talents to invade Egypt in 55 BC. After defeating the frontier forces of the Egyptian kingdom, Aulus Gabinius's army proceeded to attack the palace guards but the guards surrendered before a battle commenced.

The exact date of Ptolemy XII's restoration is unknown the earliest possible date of restoration is January 4, 55 BC and the latest possible date was June 24 the same year. Nevertheless, upon entering the palace, Ptolemy had Berenice and her supporters executed. From then on, he reigned until he fell ill in 51 BC. Around two thousand Roman soldiers and mercenaries, the so-called Gabiniani, were stationed in Alexandria to ensure Ptolemy XII's authority on the throne. In exchange, Rome was able to exert its power over the restored king. His daughter Cleopatra VII became his coregent.

At the moment of Ptolemy XII's restoration, Roman creditors demanded the return on their investments but the Alexandrian treasury could not repay the king's debt. Learning from previous mistakes, Ptolemy XII shifted popular resentment of tax increases from the king to a Roman, his main creditor Gaius Rabirius Postumus, whom he appointed Dioiketes (minister of finance). So Rabirius was placed in charge of debt repayment. Perhaps Gabinius had also put pressure on Ptolemy XII to appoint Rabirius, who had now direct access to the financial resources of Egypt but exploited the land too much. The king had to imprison Rabirius to protect his life from the angry people. Then he allowed him to escape. The Roman immediately left Egypt and went back to Rome at the end of the year 54 BC. There he was accused de repetundis, but defended by Cicero and he was probably acquitted. Ptolemy, also, permitted a debasing of the coinage as an attempt to repay the loans. Near the end of Ptolemy's reign, the value of Egyptian coins dropped to about fifty percent of its value at the beginning of his reign.

Before his death, Ptolemy XII chose his daughter Cleopatra VII as his coregent. In his will, he declared that she and her brother Ptolemy XIII should rule the kingdom together. To safeguard his interests, he made the people of Rome executors of his will. Since the Senate was busy with its own affairs, Pompey (as Ptolemy XII's ally) approved the will.

“Throughout his long-lasting reign the principal aim of Ptolemy was to secure his hold on the Egyptian throne so as to eventually pass it to his heirs. To achieve this goal he was prepared to sacrifice much: the loss of rich Ptolemaic lands, most of his wealth and even, according to Cicero, the very dignity on which the mystique of kingship rested when he appeared before the Roman people as a mere supplicant.”


Militar

Ptolemaic Egypt, along with the other Hellenistic states outside of the Greek mainland after Alexander the Great, had its armies based on the Macedonian phalanx and featured Macedonian and native troops fighting side by side.

The Ptolemaic military was filled with diverse peoples from across their territories. At first most of the military was made up of a pool of Greek settlers who, in exchange for military service, were given land grants. These made up the majority of the army.

With the many wars the Ptolemies were involved in, their pool of Macedonian troops dwindled and there was little Greek immigration from the mainland so they were kept in the royal bodyguard and as generals and officers. Native troops were looked down upon and distrusted due to their disloyalty and frequent tendency to aid local revolts. However, with the decline of royal power, they gained influence and became common in the military.

The Ptolemies used the great wealth of Egypt to their advantage by hiring vast amounts of mercenaries from across the known world. Black Ethiopians are also known to have served in the military along with the Galatians, Mysians and others.

With their vast amount of territory spread along the Eastern Mediterranean such as Cyprus, Crete, the islands of the Aegean and even Thrace, the Ptolemies required a large navy to defend these far-flung strongholds from enemies like the Seleucids and Macedonians.

The Ptolemaic Navy ⎰] was the naval force of the Ptolemaic Kingdom and later empire from 305 to 30 BC. It was founded by King Ptolemy I. Its main naval bases were at Alexandria, Egypt and Nea Paphos or (New Paphos) in Cyprus. It operated in the East Mediterranean in the Aegean Sea, the Levantine Sea, but also on the river Nile and in the Red Sea towards the Indian Ocean. ⎱] The navy operated four naval forces including the Alexandrian Fleet, ⎲] the Aegean Fleet, ⎳] the Red Sea Fleet ⎴] and a Nile River Fleet. ⎵]


Ptolemy XIII Theos Philopator Timeline - History

People - Ancient Egypt : Cleopatra VII & Ptolemy XIII

Cleopatra VII in Tour Egypt CLEOPATRA VII PTOLEMAIC DYNASTY In the springtime of 51 BC, Ptolemy Auletes died and left his kingdom in his will to his eighteen year old daughter, Cleopatra, and her younger brother Ptolemy XIII who was twelve at the time. Cleopatra was born in 69 BC in Alexandria, Egypt. She had two older sisters, Cleopatra VI and Berenice IV as well as a younger sister, Arsinoe IV. There were two younger brothers as well, Ptolemy XIII and Ptolemy XIV. It is thought that Cleopatra VI may have died as a child and Auletes had Berenice beheaded. At Ptolemy Auletes' death, Pompey, a Roman leader, was left in charge of the children. During the two centuries that preceded Ptolemy Auletes death, the Ptolemies were allied with the Romans. The Ptolemies' strength was failing and the Roman Empire was rising. City after city was falling to the Roman power and the Ptolemies could do nothing but create a pact with them. During the later rule of the Ptolemies, the Romans gained more and more control over Egypt. Tributes had to be paid to the Romans to keep them away from Egypt. When Ptolemy Auletes died, the fall of the Dynasty appeared to be even closer. According to Egyptian law, Cleopatra was forced to have a consort, who was either a brother or a son, no matter what age, throughout her reign. She was married to her younger brother Ptolemy XIII when he was twelve, however she soon dropped his name from any official documents regardless of the Ptolemaic insistence that the male presence be first among co-rulers. She also had her own portrait and name on coins of that time, ignoring her brother's. When Cleopatra became co-regent, her world was crumbling down around her. Cyprus, Coele-Syria and Cyrenaica were gone. There was anarchy abroad and famine at home. Cleopatra was a strong-willed Macedonian queen who was brilliant and dreamed of a greater world empire. She almost achieved it. Whether her way of getting it done was for her own desires or for the pursuit of power will never be known for certain. However, like many Hellenistic queens, she was passionate but not promiscuous. As far as we know, she had no other lovers other than Caesar and Antony. Many believe that she did what she felt was necessary to try to save Alexandria, whatever the price. By 48 BC, Cleopatra had alarmed the more powerful court officials of Alexandria by some of her actions. For instance, her mercenaries killed the Roman governor of Syria's sons when they came to ask for her assistance for their father against the Parthians. A group of men led by Theodotus, the eunuch Pothinus and a half-Greek general, Achillas, overthrew her in favor of her younger brother. They believed him to be much easier to influence and they became his council of regency. Cleopatra is thought to have fled to Thebaid. Between 51 and 49 BC, Egypt was suffering from bad harvests and famine because of a drought which stopped the much needed Nile flooding. Ptolemy XIII signed a decree on October 27, 50 BC which banned any shipments of grain to anywhere but Alexandria. It is thought that this was to deprive Cleopatra and her supporters who were not in Alexandria. Regardless, she started an army from the Arab tribes which were east of Pelusium. During this time, she and her sister Arsinoe moved to Syria. They returned by way of Ascalon which may have been Cleopatra's temporary base. In the meantime, Pompey had been defeated at Pharsalus in August of 48 BC. He headed for Alexandria hoping to find refuge with Ptolemy XIII, of whom Pompey was a senate-appointed guardian. Pompey did not realize how much his reputation had been destroyed by Pharsalus until it was too late. He was murdered as he stepped ashore on September 28, 48 BC. The young Ptolemy XIII stood on the dock and watched the whole scene. Four days later, Caesar arrived in Alexandria. He brought with him thirty-two hundred legionaries and eight hundred cavalry. He also brought twelve other soldiers who bore the insignia of the Roman government who carried a bundle of rods with an ax with a blade that projected out. This was considered a badge of authority that gave a clear hint of his intentions. There were riots that followed in Alexandria. Ptolemy XIII was gone to Pelusium and Caesar placed himself in the royal palace and started giving out orders. The eunuch, Pothinus, brought Ptolemy back to Alexandria. Cleopatra had no intentions of being left out of any deals that were going to be made. She had herself smuggled in through enemy lines rolled in a carpet. She was delivered to Caesar. Both Cleopatra and Ptolemy were invited to appear before Caesar the next morning. By this time, she and Caesar were already lovers and Ptolemy realized this right away. He stormed out screaming that he had been betrayed, trying to arouse the Alexandrian mob. He was soon captured by Caesar's guards and brought back to the palace. It is thought that Caesar had planned to make Cleopatra the sole ruler of Alexandria. He thought she would be a puppet for Rome. The Alexandrian War was started when Pothinus called for Ptolemy XIII's soldiers in November and surrounded Caesar in Alexandria with twenty thousand men. During the war, parts of the Alexandrian Library and some of the warehouses were burned. However, Caesar did manage to capture the Pharos lighthouse, which kept his control of the harbor. Cleopatra's sister, Arsinoe, escaped from the palace and ran to Achillas. She was proclaimed the queen by the Macedonian mob and the army. Cleopatra never forgave her sister for this. During the fighting, Caesar executed Pothinus and Achillas was murdered by Ganymede. Ptolemy XIII drowned in the Nile while he was trying to flee. Because of his death, Cleopatra was now the sole ruler of Egypt. Caesar had restored her position, but she now had to marry her younger brother Ptolemy XIV, who was eleven years old. This was to please the Alexandrians and the Egyptian priests. Surely Caesar went through all of this trouble for more than his infatuation with the queen of Egypt. It must have been out of arrogance and his desire to get his hands on Egypt's vast resources. However, Cleopatra's intelligence and inheritance did have some influence as well. In what must have been very calculated on his part, she became pregnant rather quickly. For him to have a son to carry the throne was very appealing to him. Caesar and Cleopatra took an extended trip up the Nile for about two months. They stopped in Dendara where Cleopatra was worshipped as a Pharaoh. Caesar would never have this honor. Caesar only left the boat to attend important business in Syria just a few weeks before the birth of their son, Caesarion (Ptolemy Caesar) who was born on June 23, 47 BC. During July of the year 46 BC, Caesar returned to Rome. He was given many honors and a ten-year dictatorship. These celebrations lasted from September to October and he brought Cleopatra over, along with her entourage. The conservative Republicans were very offended when he established Cleopatra in his home. Her social manners did not make the situation any better. She upset many. Cleopatra had started calling herself the New Isis and was the subject of much gossip. She lived in luxury and had a statue made of gold placed by Caesar, in the temple of Venus Genetrix . Caesar also openly claimed Caesarion as his son. Many were upset that he was planning to marry Cleopatra regardless of the laws against bigamy and marriages to foreigners. However, on the Ides of March of 44 BC, all of that came to an end. Caesar was assassinated outside the Senate Building in Rome. He was killed in a conspiracy by his Senators. Many of the Senators thought he was a threat to the republic's well-being. It was thought that Caesar was making plans to have himself declared king. After Caesar's murder, Cleopatra fled Rome and returned home to Alexandria. Caesar had not mentioned Cleopatra or Caesarion in his will. She felt her life, as well as that of her child, was in great danger. Upon returning to Alexandria, she had her consort, Ptolemy XIV, assassinated and established Caesarion as her co-regent at the age of four. She found Egypt suffering from plagues and famine. The Nile canals had been neglected during her absence which caused the harvests to be bad and the inundations low. The bad harvests continued from 43 until 41 BC. Trying to help secure recognition for Caesarion with Caesar's former lieutenant Dolabella, Cleopatra sent Dolabella the four legions that Caesar had left in Egypt. Cassius captured the legions which caused Dolabella to commit suicide at Laodicea during the summer of 43 BC. She was planning to join Mark Antony and Octavian (who became Augustus) with a large fleet of ships after Dolabella's death, but was stopped by a violent storm. Cleopatra watched in the time that followed, who would be the next power in Rome. After Brutus and Cassius had been killed and Antony, Octavian and Lepidus were triumphant, Cleopatra knew which one she would have to deal with. Octavian went back to Italy very ill, so Antony was the one to watch. Her son gained his right to become king when Caesar was officially divinized in Rome on January 1, 42 BC. The main object was the promotion of Octavian, but the triumvirs knew of Cleopatra's aid to Dolabella. Cleopatra was invited by Mark Antony to Tarsus in 41 BC. She already knew enough about him to know how to get to him. She knew about his limited strategic and tactical abilities, his blue blood, the drinking, his womanizing, his vulgarity and his ambition. Even though Egypt was on the verge of economic collapse, Cleopatra put on a show for Mark Antony that even Ptolemy Philadelphos couldn't have done better. She sailed with silver oars, purple sails with her Erotes fanning her and the Nereid handmaids steering and she was dressed as Aphrodite, the goddess of love. This was a very calculated entrance considered vulgar by many. It was a vulgar display to attract the attention of a vulgar man. Mark Antony loved the idea of having a blue-blooded Ptolemy woman. His former mistress as well as his current wife, Fulvia, were merely middle class. Cleopatra and Antony spent the winter of 41 to 40 in Alexandria. According to some sources, Cleopatra could get out of him whatever she wanted, including the assassination of her sister, Arsinoe. Cleopatra may not have had so much influence over him later on. He took control of Cyprus from her. Actually it may have been Cleopatra who was the exploited one. Antony needed money and Cleopatra could be generous when it benefited her as well. In the spring of 40 BC, Mark Antony left Cleopatra and returned home. He did not see her for four years. Antony's wife, Fulvia had gotten into a serious movement against Octavian over veterans' allotments of land. She fled to Greece and had a bitter confrontation with Antony. She became ill and died there. Antony patched things up with Octavian that same autumn by marrying Octavian's sister, Octavia. She was a beautiful and intelligent woman who had been recently widowed. She had three children from her first marriage. In the meantime, Cleopatra had given birth to twins, one boy and one girl, in Alexandria. Antony's first child by Octavia was a girl. Had Octavia given him a son, things might have turned out different. Antony kept the idea of the treasures of the Ptolemies and how much he wanted it. When he finally did get the treasures, the standard interest rate in Rome fell from 12 percent to 4. Mark Antony left Italy and went to deal with the Parthians. Octavia had just had another daughter and went with him just as far as Corcyra. He gave her the excuse that he did not want to expose her to the dangers of the battles and sent her home. He told her that she would be more use to him at home in Rome keeping peace with her brother, Octavian. However, the first thing that he did when he reached Antioch, was to send for Cleopatra. Their twin children were officially recognized by Antony and were given the names of Alexander Helios and Cleopatra Selene. Mark Antony gave her much land which was very essential to Egypt. He gave her Cyprus, the Cilician coast, Phoenicia, Coele-Syria, Judea and Arabia. This allowed Egypt to be able to build ships from the lumber from Cilician coast. Egypt then built a large fleet. Antony had planned a campaign against the Parthians. He obviously needed Cleopatra's support for this and in 36 BC, he was defeated. He became more indebted to her than ever. They had just had a third child. On their return to Syria, she met him and what was left of his army, with food, clothing and money. Early in 35 BC, he returned to Egypt with her. Antony's wife, Octavia was in Athens with supplies and reinforcements waiting for her husband. He sent her a letter telling her to not come any further. Her brother, Octavian, tried to provoke Antony into a fight. Octavian would release troops as well as ships to try to force Antony into a war, which, by this time was almost inevitable. Antony might have been able to patch things up with Octavia and her brother had he returned to Rome in 35 BC. Cleopatra probably did her best to keep him in Alexandria. Octavia remained completely loyal to Antony through all of this. In 34 BC, Antony had a campaign into Armenia, which was successful and financially rewarding. He celebrated his triumph with a parade through Alexandria with Cleopatra presiding over as the New Isis. Antony presented himself as the New Dionysus as part of his dream of the Graeco-Roman rule. Within a few days, a more political ceremony took place in which the children were given their royal titles with Antony sitting on the throne as well. Ptolemy XV (Caesarion) was made the co-ruler with his mother and was called the King of Kings. Cleopatra was called the Queen of Kings, which was a higher position than that of Caesarion's. Alexander Helios, which meant the sun, was named Great King of the Seleucid empire when it was at its highest. Cleopatra Selene, which meant the moon, was called Queen of Cyrenaica and Crete. Cleopatra and Antony's son, Ptolemy Philadelphos was named King of Syria and Asia Minor at the age of two. Cleopatra had dreams of becoming the Empress of the world. She was very close to achieving these dreams and her favorite oath was, "As surely as I shall yet dispense justice on the Roman Capital." In 32 to 31 BC, Antony finally divorced Octavia. This forced the Western part of the world to recognize his relationship with Cleopatra. He had already put her name and face on a Roman coin, the silver denarii. The denarii was widely circulated throughout the Mediterranean. By doing this, Antony's relationship with the Roman allegiance was ended and Octavian decided to publish Antony's will. Octavian then formally declared war against Cleopatra. Antony's name was nowhere mentioned in the official declaration. Many false accusations were made against Cleopatra saying that she was a harlot and a drunken Oriental. These accusations were most likely made out of fear of Cleopatra and Antony. Many probably thought that the New Isis would prevail and that Antony would start up a new wave of world conquest and rule in a co-partnership from Alexandria. However, Octavian's navy severely defeated Antony in Actium, which is in Greece, on September 2, 31 BC. Octavian's admiral, Agrippa, planned and carried out the defeat. In less than a year, Antony half-heartedly defended Alexandria against the advancing army of Octavian. After the defeat, Antony committed suicide by falling on his own sword in 30 BC. After Antony's death, Cleopatra was taken to Octavian where her role in Octavian's triumph was carefully explained to her. He had no interest in any relationship, negotiation or reconciliation with the Queen of Egypt. She would be displayed as a slave in the cities she had ruled over. She must have had memories of her sister, Arsinoe, being humiliated in this way. She would not live this way, so she had an asp, which was an Egyptian cobra, brought to her hidden in a basket of figs. She died on August 12, 30 BC at the age of 39. The Egyptian religion declared that death by snakebite would secure immortality. With this, she achieved her dying wish, to not be forgotten. The only other ruler to cast a shadow on the fascination with Cleopatra was Alexander who was another Macedonian. After Cleopatra's death, Caesarion was strangled and the other children of Cleopatra were raised by Antony's wife, Octavia. Her death was the mark of the end of the Egyptian Monarchs. The Roman Emperors came into to rule in Egypt. The Ptolemies were Macedonian in decent, but ruled as Egyptians, as Pharaohs. Cleopatra was the last Pharaoh of Egypt. What is often not associated with Cleopatra was her brilliance and her devotion to her country. She was a quick-witted woman who was fluent in nine languages, however, Latin was not one of them. She was a mathematician and a very good businesswoman. She had a genuine respect for Caesar, whose intelligence and wit matched her own. Antony on the other hand almost drove her insane with his lack of intelligence and his excesses. She dealt with him and made the most of what she had to do. She fought for her country. She had a charismatic personality, was a born leader and an ambitious monarch who deserved better than suicide.

Cleopatra VII in Wikipedia Cleopatra VII Philopator (in Greek, Κλεοπάτρα Φιλοπάτωρ (Late 69 BC[1] August 12, 30 BC) was the last person to rule Egypt as an Egyptian pharaoh after her death Egypt became a Roman province. She was a member of the Ptolemaic dynasty of Ancient Egypt, and therefore was a descendant of one of Alexander the Great's generals who had seized control over Egypt after Alexander's death. Most Ptolemeis spoke Greek and refused to learn Egyptian, which is the reason that Greek as well as Egyptian languages were used on official court documents like the Rosetta Stone.[2] By contrast, Cleopatra learned Egyptian and represented herself as the reincarnation of an Egyptian Goddess. Cleopatra originally ruled jointly with her father Ptolemy XII Auletes and later with her brothers, Ptolemy XIII and Ptolemy XIV, whom she married as per Egyptian custom, but eventually she became sole ruler. As pharaoh, she consummated a liaison with Gaius Julius Caesar that solidified her grip on the throne. She later elevated her son with Caesar, Caesarion, to co-ruler in name. After Caesar's assassination in 44 BC, she aligned with Mark Antony in opposition to Caesar's legal heir, Gaius Iulius Caesar Octavianus (later known as Augustus). With Antony, she bore the twins Cleopatra Selene II and Alexander Helios, and another son, Ptolemy Philadelphus. Sus uniones con sus hermanos no produjeron hijos. After losing the Battle of Actium to Octavian's forces, Antony committed suicide. Cleopatra followed suit, according to tradition killing herself by means of an asp bite on August 12, 30 BC.[3] She was briefly outlived by Caesarion, who was declared pharaoh, but he was soon killed on Octavian's orders. Egypt became the Roman province of Aegyptus. Though Cleopatra bore the ancient Egyptian title of pharaoh, the Ptolemaic dynasty was Hellenistic, having been founded 300 years before by Ptolemy I Soter, a Macedonian Greek general of Alexander the Great.[4][5][6][7] As such, Cleopatra's language was the Greek spoken by the Hellenic aristocracy, though she was reputed to be the first ruler of the dynasty to learn Egyptian. She also adopted common Egyptian beliefs and deities. Her patron deity was Isis, and thus, during her reign, it was believed that she was the re-incarnation and embodiment of the goddess. Her death marked the end of the Ptolemaic Kingdom and Hellenistic period and the beginning of the Roman era in the eastern Mediterranean. To this day, Cleopatra remains a popular figure in Western culture. Her legacy survives in numerous works of art and the many dramatizations of her story in literature and other media, including William Shakespeare's tragedy Antony and Cleopatra, Jules Massenet's opera Cl op tre and the 1963 film Cleopatra. In most depictions, Cleopatra is put forward as a great beauty and her successive conquests of the world's most powerful men are taken to be proof of her aesthetic and sexual appeal. In his Pens es, philosopher Blaise Pascal contends that Cleopatra's classically beautiful profile changed world history: "Cleopatra's nose, had it been shorter, the whole face of the world would have been changed."[8] Biography Accession to the throne The identity of Cleopatra's mother is unknown, but she is generally believed to be Cleopatra V Tryphaena of Egypt, the sister or cousin and wife of Ptolemy XII, or possibly another Ptolemaic family member who was the daughter of Ptolemy X and Cleopatra Berenice III Philopator if Cleopatra V was not the daughter of Ptolemy X and Berenice III.[9] Cleopatra's father Auletes was a direct descendant of Alexander the Great's general, Ptolemy I Soter, son of Arsinoe and Lacus, both of Macedon. Centralization of power and corruption led to uprisings in and the losses of Cyprus and Cyrenaica, making Ptolemy's reign one of the most calamitous of the dynasty. When Ptolemy went to Rome with Cleopatra, Cleopatra VI Tryphaena seized the crown but died shortly afterwards in suspicious circumstances. It is believed, though not proven by historical sources, that Berenice IV poisoned her so she could assume sole rulership. Regardless of the cause, she did until Ptolemy Auletes returned in 55 BC, with Roman support, capturing Alexandria aided by Roman general Aulus Gabinius. Berenice was imprisoned and executed shortly afterwards, her head allegedly being sent to the royal court on the decree of her father, the king. Cleopatra was now, at age 14, put as joint regent and deputy of her father, although her power was likely to have been severely limited. Ptolemy XII died in March 51 BC, thus by his will making the 18-year-old Cleopatra and her brother, the 10-year-old Ptolemy XIII joint monarchs. The first three years of their reign were difficult, due to economic difficulties, famine, deficient floods of the Nile, and political conflicts. Although Cleopatra was married to her young brother, she quickly made it clear that she had no intention of sharing power with him. In August 51 BC, relations between Cleopatra and Ptolemy completely broke down. Cleopatra dropped Ptolemy's name from official documents and her face appeared alone on coins, which went against Ptolemaic tradition of female rulers being subordinate to male co-rulers. In 50 BC Cleopatra came into a serious conflict with the Gabiniani, powerful Roman troops of Aulus Gabinius who had left them in Egypt to protect Ptolemy XII after his restoration to the throne in 55 BC. This conflict was one of the main causes for Cleopatra's soon following loss of power. The sole reign of Cleopatra was finally ended by a cabal of courtiers, led by the eunuch Pothinus, removing Cleopatra from power and making Ptolemy sole ruler in circa 48 BC (or possibly earlier, as a decree exists from 51 BC with Ptolemy's name alone). She tried to raise a rebellion around Pelusium, but she was soon forced to flee with her only remaining sister, Arsinoe.[10] Relation with Julius Caesar Assassination of Pompey While Cleopatra was in exile, Pompey became embroiled in the Roman civil war. In the autumn of 48 BC, Pompey fled from the forces of Caesar to Alexandria, seeking sanctuary. Ptolemy, only fifteen years old at that time, had set up a throne for himself on the harbour, from where he watched as on September 28, 48 BC, Pompey was murdered by one of his former officers, now in Ptolemaic service. He was beheaded in front of his wife and children, who were on the ship from which he had just disembarked. Ptolemy is thought to have ordered the death to ingratiate himself with Caesar, thus becoming an ally of Rome, to which Egypt was in debt at the time, though this act proved a miscalculation on Ptolemy's part. When Caesar arrived in Egypt two days later, Ptolemy presented him with Pompey's severed head Caesar was enraged. Although he was Caesar's political enemy, Pompey was a Consul of Rome and the widower of Caesar's only legitimate daughter, Julia (who died in childbirth with Pompey's son). César se apoderó de la capital egipcia y se impuso como árbitro entre las pretensiones rivales de Ptolomeo y Cleopatra. Relationship with Julius Caesar Eager to take advantage of Julius Caesar's anger toward Ptolemy, Cleopatra had herself smuggled secretly into the palace to meet with Caesar. One legend claims she entered past Ptolemy s guards rolled up in a carpet.[11] She became Caesar s mistress, and nine months after their first meeting, in 47 BC, Cleopatra gave birth to their son, Ptolemy Caesar, nicknamed Caesarion, which means "little Caesar". At this point Caesar abandoned his plans to annex Egypt, instead backing Cleopatra's claim to the throne. After a war lasting six months between the party of Ptolemy XIII and the Roman army of Caesar, Ptolemy XIII was drowned in the Nile and Caesar restored Cleopatra to her throne, with another younger brother Ptolemy XIV as her new co-ruler.[12] Although Cleopatra was 21 years old when they met and Caesar was 52, they became lovers during Caesar s stay in Egypt between 48 BC and 47 BC. Cleopatra claimed Caesar was the father of her son and wished him to name the boy his heir, but Caesar refused, choosing his grandnephew Octavian instead. During this relationship, it is also rumored that Cleopatra introduced Caesar to her astronomer Sosigenes of Alexandria, who first proposed the idea of leap day and leap years. Cleopatra, Ptolemy XIV and Caesarion visited Rome in summer 46 BC, where the Egyptian queen resided in one of Caesar's country houses.[13] The relationship between Cleopatra and Caesar was obvious to the Roman people and it was a scandal, because the Roman dictator was already married to Calpurnia Pisonis. But Caesar even erected a golden statue of Cleopatra represented as Isis in the temple of Venus Genetrix (the mythical ancestress of Caesar's family), which was situated at the Forum Julium.[14] The Roman orator Cicero said in his preserved letters that he hated the foreign queen.[15] Cleopatra and her entourage were in Rome when Caesar was assassinated on 15 March, 44 BC.[16] She returned with her relatives to Egypt. When Ptolemy XIV died allegedly poisoned by his older sister - Cleopatra made Caesarion her co-regent and successor and gave him the epithets Theos Philopator Philometor (= Father- and motherloving God).

Ptolemy XIII Theos Philopator in Wikipedia Ptolemy XIII Theos Philopator (Greek: Πτολεμαῖος Θεός Φιλοπάτωρ, Ptolemaĩos The s Philop tōr, lived 62 BC/61 BC January 13, 47 BC?, reigned from 51 BC) was one of the last members of the Ptolemaic dynasty (305 30 BC) of Egypt. Co-ruler of Egypt, inner turmoil - Son of Pharaoh Ptolemy XII of Egypt (80 58 BC and 55 51 BC), he succeeded his father in the spring of 51 BC as co-ruler of Egypt by his marriage to his older sister Cleopatra VII of Egypt (69 30 BC). In October of 50 BC, Ptolemy XIII was promoted to senior ruler along with her, although the eunuch Pothinus acted as regent for him. In the spring of 48 BC, Ptolemy XIII and Pothinus attempted to depose Cleopatra VII due to her increasing status as Queen. Her face appeared on minted coins, for example, while Ptolemy XIII's name was omitted on official documents. Ptolemy intended to become sole ruler, with Pothinus acting as the power behind the throne. Civil war - They managed to force her to flee to Syria, but she soon organized her own army and a civil war began in Egypt. Soon their other sister started to claim the throne as Arsinoe IV (48 47 BC), further complicating the situation. At this point defeated Roman general Pompey the Great came to Egypt seeking refuge from his pursuing rival Julius Caesar. Initially, Ptolemy XIII and Pothinus pretended to have accepted his request, but on September 29, 48 BC, Pothinus had the general murdered, in hopes of winning favor with Caesar when the victorious general arrived. When Caesar did arrive he was presented with the head of his deceased rival and former ally, but reportedly, instead of being pleased, reacted with disgust and ordered that Pompey's body be located and given a proper Roman funeral. Cleopatra VII proved more successful in winning Caesar's favor and became his lover. Caesar arranged the execution of Pothinus and the official return to the throne of Cleopatra VII, though she had never officially abdicated her marriage to Ptolemy XIII. Still determined to depose Cleopatra VII, Ptolemy XIII allied himself with Arsinoe IV. Jointly, they organized the factions of the army loyal to them against those loyal to Cleopatra VII and the relatively small part of his army that had accompanied Caesar to Egypt. The battle between the warring factions occurred in mid-December of 48 BC inside Alexandria itself, which suffered serious damage, including (according to some sources)[citation needed] the burning of some of the buildings which comprised the Library of Alexandria. The arrival of Roman reinforcements from Pergamum gave the victory to Caesar and Cleopatra VII, forcing Ptolemy XIII and Arsinoe IV to flee the city. Ptolemy XIII reportedly drowned on January 13, 47 BC while attempting to cross the Nile. Whether he was attempting to flee or was seeking negotiations remains uncertain from sources of the time. Cleopatra VII remained the unchallenged ruler of Egypt, although she named their younger brother Ptolemy XIV of Egypt (47 44 BC) her new co-ruler.


Ver el vídeo: 5 mentiras sobre Cleopatra (Junio 2022).


Comentarios:

  1. Kahlil

    Pido disculpas, pero, en mi opinión, no tienes razón. Estoy seguro. Escríbeme en PM, hablaremos.

  2. Devin

    Algo no sale así nada

  3. Acis

    Pido disculpas, pero, en mi opinión, es obvio.

  4. Akando

    ¡Maldita sea, mi panqueque no funcionará! (

  5. Brockley

    ¿Hay algo similar?



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